Lunar Months of the Gregorian Easter Cycle 1700-1899
Civil calendar date of the first day of the lunar month.  This table is valid for the years 1700-1899.

 
 
lunar month:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
 
 
 
30 days
29 days (in some years, 30)
30 days
29 days
30 days
29 days
30 days
29 days
30 days
29 days
30 days
29 days
30 days (in 19th year, 29)
year of Gregorian cycle
year of Jewish cycle
epact
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
17
30
 1-Jan
31-Jan
 1-Mar
31-Mar
29-Apr
29-May
27-Jun
27-Jul
25-Aug
24-Sep
23-Oct
22-Nov
 
2
18
11
21-Dec
20-Jan
18-Feb
20-Mar
18-Apr
18-May
16-Jun
16-Jul
14-Aug
13-Sep
12-Oct
11-Nov
 
3
19
22
10-Dec
 9-Jan
 7-Feb
 9-Mar
 7-Apr
 7-May
 5-Jun
 5-Jul
 3-Aug
 2-Sep
 1-Oct
31-Oct
29-Nov
4
1
3
29-Dec
28-Jan
26-Feb
28-Mar
26-Apr
26-May
24-Jun
24-Jul
22-Aug
21-Sep
20-Oct
19-Nov
 
5
2
14
18-Dec
17-Jan
15-Feb
17-Mar
15-Apr
15-May
13-Jun
13-Jul
11-Aug
10-Sep
 9-Oct
 8-Nov
7-Dec
6
3
25
 6-Jan
 5-Feb
 6-Mar
 5-Apr
 4-May
 3-Jun
 2-Jul
 1-Aug
30-Aug
29-Sep
28-Oct
27-Nov
 
7
4
6
26-Dec
25-Jan
23-Feb
25-Mar
23-Apr
23-May
21-Jun
21-Jul
19-Aug
18-Sep
17-Oct
16-Nov
 
8
5
17
15-Dec
14-Jan
12-Feb
14-Mar
12-Apr
12-May
10-Jun
10-Jul
 8-Aug
 7-Sep
 6-Oct
 5-Nov
 4-Dec
9
6
28
 3-Jan
 2-Feb
 3-Mar
 2-Apr
1-May
31-May
29-Jun
29-Jul
27-Aug
26-Sep
25-Oct
24-Nov
 
10
7
9
23-Dec
22-Jan
20-Feb
22-Mar
20-Apr
20-May
18-Jun
18-Jul
16-Aug
15-Sep
14-Oct
13-Nov
 
11
8
20
12-Dec
11-Jan
 9-Feb
11-Mar
 9-Apr
 9-May
 7-Jun
 7-Jul
 5-Aug
 4-Sep
 3-Oct
 2-Nov
1-Dec
12
9
1
31-Dec
30-Jan
28-Feb
30-Mar
28-Apr
28-May
26-Jun
26-Jul
24-Aug
23-Sep
22-Oct
21-Nov
 
13
10
12
20-Dec
19-Jan
17-Feb
19-Mar
17-Apr
17-May
15-Jun
15-Jul
13-Aug
12-Sep
11-Oct
 10-Nov
 
14
11
23
 9-Dec
 8-Jan
 6-Feb
 8-Mar
 6-Apr
 6-May
 4-Jun
 4-Jul
 2-Aug
1-Sep
30-Sep
30-Oct
28-Nov
15
12
4
28-Dec
27-Jan
25-Feb
27-Mar
25-Apr
25-May
23-Jun
23-Jul
21-Aug
20-Sep
19-Oct
18-Nov
 
16
13
15
17-Dec
16-Jan
14-Feb
16-Mar
14-Apr
14-May
12-Jun
12-Jul
 10-Aug
 9-Sep
 8-Oct
 7-Nov
 6-Dec
17
14
26
 5-Jan
 4-Feb
 5-Mar
 4-Apr
 3-May
 2-Jun
1-Jul
31-Jul
29-Aug
28-Sep
27-Oct
26-Nov
 
18
15
7
25-Dec
24-Jan
22-Feb
24-Mar
22-Apr
22-May
20-Jun
20-Jul
18-Aug
17-Sep
16-Oct
15-Nov
 
19
16
18
14-Dec
13-Jan
11-Feb
13-Mar
11-Apr
11-May
 9-Jun
 9-Jul
 7-Aug
 6-Sep
 5-Oct
 4-Nov
 3-Dec



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

How to use this table:

The year:

The Gregorian lunar almanac is a 19-year cycle which assigns an age of the moon to every day in the 19-year period.

Year one of the Gregorian cycle is any year in which the year's number is divisible by 19 without remainder.  The year 1786, for example, was year one of its cycle:  The table shows that Lunar Year 1786 began on January 1st, 1786.  (More precisely, at sunset on December 31st, 1785).   Successive years of the cycle follow in order.  The year 1787 was year two:  Lunar Year 1787 began on December 21st, 1786  (Or more precisely, at sunset on December 20th, 1786).   The year 1788 was year 3:  Lunar Year 1788 began on December 10th, 1787.
 

The month:

Each year contains 12 or 13 lunar months.  Each lunar month has 29 or 30 days.

The table shows the first day of each lunar month in the Gregorian Easter cycle.  The moon is considered to be one day old on the first day of the lunar month.  This day is also called "new moon" because it corresponds, on the average, to the day on which the new waxing  crescent moon theoretically first becomes visible.

If February has 29 days, an extra day is added to month 2, making it a month of 30 days, rather than 29 days.  Month 3 then begins a day later than the date listed in the table if the date listed is a date prior to February 29th.  (This is not the only  possible way of accounting for a 29-day February, but it is the easiest.)

The last lunar month of the 19th year of the cycle has 29 days.
 

The day:

Because this is a Babylonian-style lunar calendar, the day begins on sunset of the day prior to the day listed in the table.  The table shows that the first day of the first moon of year 1 of the cycle corresponds to January 2nd.  This means that the first day  of the lunar month begins at sunset on January 1st and ends at sunset on January 2nd, when the second day of the lunar month begins.
 

The Easter festival falls in the first lunar month of the year to begin on or after March 8th.  In the years 1700-1899, this is always the fourth moon.  Easter is always the third Sunday in its lunar month.

In the Earth's Northern hemisphere, the Spring season of year 4 of the Gregorian cycle coincides with the Spring season of year 1 of the Jewish 19-year cycle, with other years of each cycle following in succession.  The Feast of Unleavened Bread for the year 5565 (year 17 of the Jewish cycle) came in the Northern hemisphere's springtime in the Gregorian year 1805 (year 1 of the Gregorian cycle.)

Due to differences in the time of year at which the Christian and Jewish cycles add the 13th moon of 13-moon years, the Jewish Feast of Unleavened Bread, in years 3, 11, and 14  of the Gregorian cycles spanning the years 1700-1899 (corresponding respectively to years 19, 8, and 11 of the Jewish cycle), fell in the lunar month next after the lunar month in which the Christian Easter festival fell.  In all other years of the cycle, Easter and the Feast of Unleavened Bread fell in the same lunar month.  But though the lunar month in which the Jewish Feast of Unleavened Bread fell can be identified using the table above, the precise dates of the Feast of Unleavened Bread cannot be determined accurately from the table.  This is because the Gregorian and Jewish calendars use different rules for computing the moon's age.



 

References:

Explanatory Supplement to the Ephemeris and the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1966, fourth revised printing, 1977.

Alexander Philip, The Calendar: Its History, Structure and Improvement, University Press, Cambridge, 1921.

L. A. Resnikoff, "Jewish Calendar Calculations I", Scripta Mathematica 9, 191(1943); "Jewish Calendar Calculations II", Scripta Mathematica 9, 274(1943).